Jackson’s ‘Women in 19th Century Irish Emigration’

Abstract

Nineteenth century Ireland falls neatly into two distinct periods: the period preceding and the period following the great famine of 1845-1849. The emigration of women during and after the famine is examined in this article. Changes in marriage and the spread of dowries is analyzed to distinguish between the roles of married and unmarried women. Options other than emigration are highlighted insofar as they constituted “choices” for women which avoided the decision, taken by some two million women, to leave their island home by emigrating.

–Provided by Author

Review

This article explores a variety of connections between the Great Famine and Irish female migration, paying particular attention to wider changes in the country’s economy and the resultant changes in its society. The piece is very wide in its remit, and raises a good range of questions, challenging assumptions about the causal relationships between economic shifts, societal norms and out-migration in an engaging manner. However, the breadth of the piece does not allow for significant depth of evidence or analysis; it raises questions but does not seek to fully answer them. More importantly, it does not provide significant coverage of pre-famine Ireland. Its statistical evidence is conspicuously post-1841 and only vague reference is given to Georgian norms. Thus, the contrasts it hopes to highlight remain shadowy. Nonetheless, it may be particularly useful as a reading for undergraduates, as it provides a flowing discussion that will prompt solid discussion on a variety of themes and concepts.

May Be Useful To Those Studying

  • The Great Famine
  • Female emigration
  • Irish emigration
  • Irish marriage patterns
  • Malthusian economics

Citation

Jackson, Pauline. “Women in 19th Century Irish Emigration.” International Migration Review 18, no. 4 (December 1, 1984): 1004–1020.

Worsnop’s ‘A Reevaluation of “the Problem of Surplus Women” in 19th-century England’

Abstract

A debate concerning the “surplus women” problem identified by the 1851 Census took place, between women and men, between radicals and conservatives. Both the debate, and the actuality, of surplus women was influential for feminism and the women’s suffrage movement. This paper examines this debate through the 1850s and 1860s published voices of both sides.

-Provided by Author

Review

This brief article discusses the role of the 1851 census in the debate surrounding the best ‘solutions’ to the ‘surplus women problem’ of Victorian Britain.  It provides a number of useful examples of conservative and radical writers, those advocating a re-balancing of sex-ratios and those advocating a re-balancing of gender norms. The author demonstrate clear links not only to the wider post-1851 debate, but how the census was used as evidence by both sides.  What is somewhat nagging about this piece is its light reference to the pre-1851 context. Although abstractly referenced, a true ‘baseline’ for the pre-1851 population is not provided, nor is a rhetorical baseline for pre-1851 commentary.  Because of this, a fuller understanding of the role of the 1851 census in shaping the discourse is ultimately unclear.

May Be Useful To Those Studying

  • The “surplus women” problem
  • British Feminism
  • Women and work in 19th-century Britain
  • 19th-century British Women writers
  • Victorian debates on gender

Citation

Worsnop, Judith. “A Reevaluation of ‘the Problem of Surplus Women’ in 19th-century England: The Case of the 1851 Census.” Women’s Studies International Forum 13, no. 1 (1990): 21.

Hirsch’s ‘Parentheses: Digital Humanities and the Place of Pedagogy’

Abstract (for entire volume)

Academic institutions are starting to recognize the growing public interest in digital humanities research, and there is an increasing demand from students for formal training in its methods. Despite the pressure on practitioners to develop innovative courses, scholarship in this area has tended to focus on research methods, theories and results rather than critical pedagogy and the actual practice of teaching.

The essays in this collection offer a timely intervention in digital humanities scholarship, bringing together established and emerging scholars from a variety of humanities disciplines across the world. The first section offers views on the practical realities of teaching digital humanities at undergraduate and graduate levels, presenting case studies and snapshots of the authors’ experiences alongside models for future courses and reflections on pedagogical successes and failures. The next section proposes strategies for teaching foundational digital humanities methods across a variety of scholarly disciplines, and the book concludes with wider debates about the place of digital humanities in the academy, from the field’s cultural assumptions and social obligations to its political visions.

Digital Humanities Pedagogy broadens the ways in which both scholars and practitioners can think about this emerging discipline, ensuring its ongoing development, vitality and long-term sustainability.

-Provided by Author

Review

Hirsch’s introduction to the volume provides a rounded and well-articulated case for the importance of pedagogical reflection within the Digital Humanities, not only for direct teaching responsibilities within an undergraduate or taught post-graduate environment, but as a matter critical to the continuation and evolution of the Digital Humanities as a field of scholarly research. Hirsch explores the rise of a rigorous DigitalHumanities pedagogy, as well as its continued absence in some corners, providing not only an introduction to the subsequent essays, but a thought-provoking essay in its own right.

May Be Useful To Those Studying

  • The Digital Humanities
  • Pedagogy
  • The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
  • eLearning
  • Research-Led Teaching
  • Humanities Computing
  • The History of Research Centres
  • Recent Developments within Higher Education

Citation

Hirsch, Brett D. ‘Parenthesis: Digital Humanities and the Place of Pedagogy’ in Brett D. Hirsh (ed) Digital Humanities Pedagogy: Practice, Principles and Politics (Open Book Publishing, 2012), pp. 1-30.

Available for free and in full at Open Book Publishing: http://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/161/digital-humanities-pedagogy–practices–principles-and-politics

Windholz’s ‘An Emigrant and a Gentleman: Imperial Masculinity, British Magazines, and the Colony that Got Away’

Abstract:

Focuses on the emigration of young men from Great Britain to the United States during the 19th century. Description of British masculinity in the 19th century; Implications of the emigration; Information on several literatures interpreting and viewing the emigration. [From EBSCO]

Review:

Windolz examination of the nature of British Imperial masculinity in the context of large-scale migration to the American West provides an important and engaging counterpoint to scholarship of ‘female redundancy’, while providing yet another literary dimension to discussions of imperial, homosocial masculinity in Britain’s settler societies. She provides a number of illustrative examples from an interesting cross-section of Victorian literary magazines, and carefully contrasts positive portrayals of frontier masculinity with more reserved or openly hostile discussions of immigration to the United States. The continuing debate over climate-induced degeneracy, so prevalent in discussions of migration to colonial North America, was particularly persuasive. An enjoyable read.

Useful For Those Studying:

  • Gender Relations
  • The ‘New Woman’ and ‘Crises of Masculinity’  in Victorian Britain
  • Imperial Literature
  • ‘Ripping Yarns’ in Victorian Literature and Consciousness
  • Migration within the British Empire
  • Migration to the United States
  • British migrants in the American West
  • Anglo-American cultural divides
  • Periodical Literature

Citation:

Windholz, Anne M. ‘An Emigrant and a Gentleman: Imperial Masculinity, British Magazines, and the Colony that Got Away’, Victorian Studies 42:4 (1999-2000), pp. 631-658.

Abstract:

Focuses on the emigration of young men from Great Britain to the United States during the 19th century. Description of British masculinity in the 19th century; Implications of the emigration; Information on several literatures interpreting and viewing the emigration. [From EBSCO]

Review:

Windolz examination of the nature of British Imperial masculinity in the context of large-scale migration to the American West provides an important and engaging counterpoint to scholarship of ‘female redundancy’, while providing yet another literary dimension to discussions of imperial, homosocial masculinity in Britain’s settler societies. She provides a number of illustrative examples from an interesting cross-section of Victorian literary magazines, and carefully contrasts positive portrayals of frontier masculinity with more reserved or openly hostile discussions of immigration to the United States. The continuing debate over climate-induced degeneracy, so prevalent in discussions of migration to colonial North America, was particularly persuasive. An enjoyable read.

Useful For Those Studying:

  • Gender Relations
  • The ‘New Woman’ and ‘Crises of Masculinity’  in Victorian Britain
  • Imperial Literature
  • ‘Ripping Yarns’ in Victorian Literature and Consciousness
  • Migration within the British Empire
  • Migration to the United States
  • British migrants in the American West
  • Anglo-American cultural divides
  • Periodical Literature

Citation:

Windholz, Anne M. ‘An Emigrant and a Gentleman: Imperial Masculinity, British Magazines, and the Colony that Got Away’, Victorian Studies 42:4 (1999-2000), pp. 631-658.

Bush’s ‘The Right Sort of Woman’: Female Emigrators and Emigration to the British Empire, 1890-1910’

Abstract:

This article explores white British women’s efforts to appropriate their share of the Empire through the propaganda of female emigration societies. Female emigrators rejoiced in growing government recognition of their work, but sustained a style of female leadership and activism that deserves evaluation alongside other Victorian and Edwardian women’s movements. The article analyses the views of the emigrators on key issues related to female emigration: prospects for work and for marriage; the possibilities of a freer lifestyle for women in the colonies; the class issues surrounding servants’ emigration, and their assumed need for moral surveillance; the links (both biological and symbolic) between imperialism and motherhood. Debate surrounded these issues within the female emigration movement as well as outside it. As the female emigrators carved a space for women in the Empire, they confronted contradictions in their own lives and in gendered British society. [From the Author]

Review:

Bush’s article attempts to address the connection between female emigration societies and the concept of ‘imperious maternity’, those aspects of empire building that were taken up or popularised by female imperialists. As her abstract notes, this piece covers a wide range of topics and provides a great deal of personal and corporate biographical material alongside a close analysis of private and public discourse. Although all sections ultimately centre around the ‘imperious maternity’ concept, they can feel somewhat disconnected from one another, as the author moves from one period to the next, from colony to another, or between different organisational structures. It therefore requires (or prompts) a solid understanding of the cited groups and individuals as well as their connection to the wider female emigration debate. Overall, by linking this to some of the most debated practicalities of female emigration, Bush does provides some compelling evidence for the feminisation of imperial discourse by these women; however, the overall thrust of the argument is sometimes lost in the detail of the individual discussions.

Useful For Those Studying:

  • Women’s History
  • ‘Surplus Women’ Problem in Victorian Britain
  • Female Emigration
  • Emigration Societies
  • History of Feminism
  • Migration within the British Empire
  • Civil Society
  • Gender Solidarity (between classes)

Citation:

Bush, Julia. “‘The Right Sort of Woman’: Female Emigrators and Emigration to the British Empire, 1890-1910.” Women’s History Review 3, no. 3 (1994): 385–409.